Sadow Parish 2010

Sadow Parish 2010

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

What Is A Farmer??? I Always Wanted To Know!

I found this on the Brandenburg List.  An excellent list of the different names of different types of farmers in Germany in the "old days"  I thought it was really useful.  At the bottom is the list of credits.  I think its great! It was sent in by Don Zochert.

A farmer; see Bauer.

"In its broadest meaning, a Bauer was anyone who lived on the land, made his living through agriculture, and had no other rights that could include him in any other class. This is the way in which the Prussian General Law Code of 1794 defined the peasantry [Bauernstände]." In its narrowest use, Bauer "was used to refer only to those persons within the rural population who had property rights, inheritance rights, or at least some form of extended contractual rights over their land...In general, it may be said that to be considered a Bauer in the narrowest sense one had to hold rights to a Hufe, a specified portion (varying in size according to region) of the Flur, the large, open fields of the estate in which the strips of the noble lord were farmed in unison with those belonging to the Bauern." A Hufe was commonly taken to mean 30 morgen, and a full Bauer frequently had 2 or 2 1/2 Hufe. In Mark Brandenburg, peasants with such rights were referred to as Bauer or Hufner. (Berdahl, 28) "A full Bauer generally had at least four teams (Spannen) or two horses or oxen each" with which to "perform Spanndienst, labor service with a team of draft animals, for the lord." The nature of labor service performed for the estate owner was based in part on the size of the peasant's holdings and the number of draft animals the peasant could support. (Berdahl, 33) "...those who were not true Bauern stood on a lower rung of the social structure, commanded less respect, and had virtually no voice in village affairs." (Berdahl, 33)

Knodel, 523, gives these terms for farmer: Ackermann, Bauer, Landwirt, Ökonom, Pächter, and, in Ostfriesland, Hausmann and Heuermann.

A cottager or small peasant, holding little or no land. (Kriedte, xi). A peasant who lived in a Stelle on communal ground (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

Another term for Inleute. (Berdahl, 34) Oderbruch residents were often described in parish registers as Büdner. Kriedte describes as: Cottager or small peasant, holding little or no land. (Kriedte, xi)

See discussion under Inleute.

A sub-category of Gärtner or Freigärtner who "were obligated to supply the lord with the daily service of two persons, a man and a woman." (Berdahl, 34)

While free peasant farmers called Kölmer "formed a group at one end of the social spectrum free of the authority of the noble lord, a group at the other end was likewise personally free. They were variously referred to as Einlieger, freie Dorfseinwohner, or, in East Prussia, Instleute; the legal phrase for them was Schutzuntertanen (protected subjects). Except in East Prussia, where the Instleute obtained reasonably favorable work contracts that extended for a number of years, these peasants were frequently near the bottom of the village social order. Some of them were former unfree peasants or the sons of unfree peasants who had bought their freedom from their former lord or had successfully run away from him and taken up residence on another estate; others were probably children of small handworkers in the towns who could find no positions and settled on an estate in the country; others may have been vagrants or roamers who settled down. When they presented themselves to the lord and requested his permission to settle on his estate, they subjected themselves to his authority, accepted specified work obligations from him, and worked as day-wage laborers (Tagelöhner). Because such employment usually did not provide a subsistence, they also worked as wage laborers for the peasants in the villages. These Einlieger had no cottages and usually rented quarters from peasants. Occasionally, the noble estate owner would offer them fixed rights to a plot of land; if the Einlieger accepted, they forfeited their free status and became the permanent subjects (Untertanen) of the estate. In most respects, their existence differed little from the other, unfree Einlieger or Tagelöhner in a village, with one exception: unless they agreed to become permanent subjects, they retained their freedom to leave the estate." (Berdahl, 30) Kriedte describes Einlieger as a lodger. (Kriedte, xi) Lowie says an Einlieger lived in a Stelle on a full-peasant's Hof, as did an Einwohner and Heuerling (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

A peasant who lived in a Stelle on a full-peasant's Hof (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

See Kölmer.

See Erbzinsbauern.

Bauern in the narrow sense of the word (see above) who were also bound peasants "with the most favorable rights were the Erbzinsbauern or Erbpachtbauern. Although they did not 'own' their lands in the sense that they had the free disposition of them, they could sell their holdings with the permission of the estate owner. Moreover, their hereditary rights to their lands extended beyond their direct descendants, although the lords retained the right to deny the inheritance to anyone they deemed 'unfit.' Erbzinsbauern were subject to the lord's authority, that is untertänig, only with respect to their property rights; if they sold their land, their Untertänigkeit was ended and they could leave the estate without having to purchase their freedom. In addition, their children were generally not untertänig and therefore did not owe personal service to the lord." (Berdahl, 31-32)

From the German version of Wikipedia: The Erbpacht (or Erbzinsleihe) was an annual lease between a landlord or Erbverpächter (or Vererbpächter) and the leaseholder or Erbbeständer. (The term Erbpächter does not appear in the German version of Wikipedia.) It granted the leaseholder rights to use the land in exchange for annual payments to the landlord of cash or cash value in crops. There also was an original purchase price paid by the initial leaseholder. This was called he Erbbestandsgeld or Erbstandgeld. The lease holder was required to follow specific rules, such as to live on the estate, maintain the property, and not subdivide it without permission of the landlord. The leasehold was hereditary; it could be passed to the heirs of the leaseholder. Similar agreements covered Büdners and Kottagers but with less rights.

Frei Dorfseinwohner
See Einlieger.

A sub-category of Gärtner. "These were by no means free persons, as their titles might indicate; rather, they were relatively free of labor service and paid substantially higher rents for their cottages and gardens. In addition to the subsistence they squeezed out of their small plots, they often worked as wage laborers for peasants with larger holdings or supplemented their meager earnings with cottage industry, especially weaving. Also see Dreschgärtner. (Berdahl, 33)

See Häusler and Freigärtner.

See Kölmer.

Goose girl (Lowie, 149); see Moravia.

A full Bauer; the term is used in Bratring.

Peasants with rights similar to Kossäten. They, in turn, were further differentiated into categories based in part upon their obligations. See Freigärtner. (Berdahl, 33) Kriedte describes as: Cottager or small peasant, holding little or no land. (Kriedte, xi)

Hired help (Lowie, 149); see Moravia.

Foreman or peasant's deputy (Lowie, 149); see Moravia.

Chief maid (Lowie, 149); see Moravia.

Demesne in east-central and eastern Europe, in German also Vorwerk, directly exploited by the Gutsherr on the basis of labour dues from the peasant serfs. (Kriedte, xi)

See discussion under Inleute.

A Halbbauer or half-Bauer generally had two teams of draft animals, as opposed to full Bauern who "generally had at least four teams (Spannen) or two horses or oxen each." (Berdahl, 33). According to Lowie, equivalent to Kötter; see Westphalia.

See Kossäten. The term is used by Bratring.

Manual labor. Peasants without teams of draft animals, "usually only some of the nonhereditary Lassiten," were liable for Handdienst as part of their obligation to the lord. (Berdahl, 33)

Peasants with rights similar to Kossäten. They, in turn, were further differentiated into categories based in part upon their obligations. See Freigärtner. (Berdahl, 33) Kriedte describes as: Cottager or small peasant, holding little or no land. (Kriedte, xi)

Another term for Inleute. (Berdahl, 34)

A peasant who lived  in a Stelle on a full-peasant's Hof (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia. Also see directly below.

Cottager or small peasant, holding little or no land. (Kriedte, xi)

Proprietor of a small farm (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

See Bauer.

Peasants who possessed no land. "In rare cases, they were given cottages in which to live; most commonly, they rented quarters from peasants in the village...they worked as day-wage earners (Tagelöhner) on the lord's estate or on the lands of the peasants. Usually they were hired by the peasants to perform service they owed to the estate owner. Because much of their work was seasonal, they supplemented their agricultural wages, wherever possible, with spinning and weaving." (Berdahl, 34)

Discussing "the poor" in the Upper Austrian countryside: "The most numerously represented occupation consisted of male and female lodgers (Inleute). These were individuals who rented their quarters and worked as day-laborers either for their landlord or for other employers in the village or its surroundings."  (Rebel, 77-78) The term Inleute comes from "indwellers," i.e. lodgers. They "derived their name from their housing status and pursued a great variety of occupational specializations...They constituted an extremely flexible labor force...This is shown by the collections of tools and materials found in their inventories. Combinations of two or more types of agricultural implements, metal-working tools, some textile-working tools and materials, and axes, saws, and augers necessary for various kinds of woodwork were usually found among the movables of male lodgers. Female lodgers tended to be more intensely involved in textile putting-out networks and their movables consisted of combinations of spools, spinning wheels, seamstress and milliner materials, as well as some agricultural tools." (Rebel, 95) "Unlike the servants, lodgers did not depend on their employers for food and lodging and were at considerably greater liberty to choose and change their employment on short notice. Here is a clear instance of the relatively early development of labor in rural industry combining with traditional forms of agricultural labor to create a rural working class distinct from the traditional field hands, stable help, and scullions." (Rebel, 98)

"What sort of workers provided the manual labor needed to raise the huge quantities of potatoes raised on Junker estates, as well as to supervise the stall feeding of livestock? Much of it came from the expanding stratum of smallholders (Kleinstellenbesitzer) who usually lived on small parcels of inherited or rented peasant land, and who could make a living only by doing part-time or seasonal work on knight's estate and large peasant farms. Junkers often hired these smallholders as extra hands for the harvest or for major agricultural improvements...Yet at mid-century most field labor on knight's estates was provided by the many kinds of day-laborers who worked on verbal 'contracts' and were collectively known as Gutstagelöhner. Many Junkers had begun to employ significant numbers of contractual laborers during the eighteenth century, long before the abolition of serfdom, and their numbers grew rapidly during the several decades after the 1807 emancipation edict. The day-laborers' means of employment and living conditions varied from province to province and even from estate to estate...Nevertheless, during the pre-1848 years the most common category of day-laborers seem to have been the cottagers or lodgers known as Insten. Two and sometimes three members of such a cottager's household were required to work in the Junker's fields from sunrise to sunset six days per week for most of the year. The compensation paid to the cottager family generally included a small house attached to perhaps half an acre of garden land, most of it planted in potatoes..In addition to home and garden, the cottager also received the right to graze a few animals on the lord's pastureland, and small cash wages during the four to six months of the year when there was no threshing to be done...During the pre-1848 years the East Elbian Instmann also received the harvest from a small portion of the Junker's rotating fields-from two to five acres, ploughed by the Junker's draught animals (oxen), which were usually tended by servants. The Instmann also received a fraction of the Junker's grain (between one-tenth and one-sixteenth) that the cottager threshed with a flail during the winter months." (Bowman, 71-72)

See discussion under Inleute.

Another term for Inleute. (Berdahl, 34). Berdahl also describes this as another term, in East Prussia, for Einlieger.

See discussion under Inleute.

Another term for Inleute. (Berdahl, 34)

Another term for Inleute. (Berdahl, 34)

A secondary hired hand working for a peasant (Lowie, 149); see Moravia.

Secondary maid (Lowie, 149); see Moravia.

Smallholder; see discussion under Inleute. Also see: Westphalia.

A class of landless peasants "at the very bottom of society, were the Knechte or Mägde, the servants of the peasants in the village, who frequently had no place to sleep but in stalls and barns." (Berdahl, 34)

Writing of Upper Austria: "Even the inventories of many poor to middling households show debts owing for the services of male (Knecht) and female (Magd) servants...These were the traditional field laborers, stable hands, kitchen and house servants who performed the char labors necessary to farming since its earliest days. Servants were hired by the year and became a part of their employer's household. While lodgers paid for their own lodging in a tenant household, servants tended to sleep in one of their employer's outbuildings or, if the latter was wealthy, in a room and bed shared by all servants." (Rebel, 101)

"A small group of peasants in the Prussian provinces was completely free of obligations or subservience to the noble estates and formed a middle stratum of free farmers between the larger estate owners on the one side and the servile peasantry on the other...In East Prussia, this group was more numerous than elsewhere in the monarchy; referred to as Kölmer, these free peasant farmers rejected the term Bauer and insisted on being called 'owners of kölmischen estates.' Elsewhere, these free peasant farmers were called Lehnschulzen, Freischulzen, or Erbschulzen. In the Mark Brandenburg, the Lehnschulzen often worked closely with the landholding nobility, serving as Schulzen, the chief administrative and police officers of the village. They often directed the labor force of the village, saw to it that the village obligations to the state were fulfilled, and virtually ran the village." (Berdahl, 29)

Owner of from four to six horses (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

"In the Mark Brandenburg the class of peasantry immediately below the Bauern were the Kossäten, who were almost always excluded from the Flur and leased smaller holdings from the estate owner for a fixed period of time. They were seldom capable of supporting a team, so they were usually bound to perform substantial hand labor for the lord." (Berdahl, 33) Kriedte describes as: Cottager or small peasant, holding little or no land. (Kriedte, xi)

Cottager (Knodel, 523). Kriedte describes as: Cottager or small peasant, holding little or no land. (Kriedte, xi) Also see: Westphalia.

Cottager (Knodel, 523)

Farmer; see Bauer.

Lassbauern or Lassiten were genuine Bauern and bound peasants like Erbzinsbauern, and were much more numerous, but held a less favorable status. "Within this group, there was a considerable range in the size of the landholdings and the nature of the tenure rights. Some Lassbauern had hereditary rights to their lands similar to the Erbzinsbauern, but with notable differences. Their personal bondage was greater. In the event they were to sell their holdings, which required the lord's approval, they still remained bound to the estate and could not leave it without paying for their emancipation. Their lands could be inherited only by their wives or sons, but the noble estate owner had the right to select the son who would inherit the holdings. Their children were born into bondage and owed one year of personal service to the lord. Those Lassbauern who did not hold hereditary rights were more common and formed the classic model of the Untertänigkeit, especially in the older regions of the Mark Brandenburg. As in the case of Lassbauern with hereditary tenure, they were bound to the estate, although they held their lands only for their lifetime; the lord had the right, nevertheless, to break their lifetime contract if he deemed their service inadequate. The children of nonhereditary Lassbauern were bound to the estate and liable for three years of personal service to the lord." (Berdahl, 32)

See Lassbauern.

See Kölmer.

See Knecht.

Headman of a settlement (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

Another term for Inleute. (Berdahl, 34)

"In northern Moravia the Gesinde (hired help) embraced various levels. The Grossknecht (foreman) was the peasant's deputy, and in his absence he might issue orders even to the owner's wife; under his discretion were the horse stable, vehicles, and barn. Below him ranked the Kleinknecht (lesser hired man). The peasant's wife directed the Grossmagd (chief maid), the zweite Magd (second maid) or Kleinmagd (lesser maid), and the goosegirl (Gänsemagd). A maid was expected to work until she had procured her trousseau; it normally took from eight to ten years to rise from the goosegirl's to the chief maid's status." (Lowie, 149)

The farm of a Schulte; see Westphalia.

Farmer; see Bauer.

Farmer; see Bauer.

Peasant services
"The division of labor on an estate grew out of the different service obligations and reflected the differentiation of peasant status. Peasants owing the service of draft animals were responsible for plowing, harrowing, hauling grain to market, and all other jobs requiring horse-power. Most of the sowing, weeding of root crops, fertilizing, harvesting, and threshing was done by those performing hand services. Women prepared flax for spinning, men chopped wood, and children helped to herd livestock." (Berdahl, 37)

"It is...difficult to characterize the various rents, dues, and services owed by peasants to their lords, for they varied according to the status of the peasant and according to region. In general, the service obligations of the peasantry were probably greatest in Silesia and smallest in parts of East Prussia and Brandenburg. Peasants with substantial rent obligations as a rule owed only one or two days of service per week, whereas those who paid less worked more. Service obligations were tied to the land held by the peasant; thus, full peasants frequently were required to provide daily service to the estate owner. This they rarely performed themselves but gave instead to the Einlieger or Tagelöhner in their employ. Peasants lower on the social scale often fulfilled their obligations themselves. By the eighteenth century, labor contracts, Urbaren, were common in most regions of Prussia; they defined precisely the services owed. A summary of such an Urbar from Silesia in 1790 offers a glimpse of the nature of peasant service on one estate. The full peasants were each obligated to provide, without compensation, the daily service of four draft teams with their equipment throughout the year. When the peasant was called upon to do hand service, he was not obligated to provide the draft teams. Each workday was divided according to the season. From spring until fall, it was divided into three parts: from sunrise until 9 A.M., from ten A.M. until two P.M., and from three P.M. until sunset. The peasants did not have to work during the second period. In the shorter winter days, the workday extended from sunrise until eleven A.M. and from two P.M. until sunset. The peasant had to haul the harvested grain to the market. Dreschgärtner were required to supply the daily hand service of two persons, a man and a woman, except during the harvest season, when they were required to supply three. The work periods during the harvest season were also clearly specified, including the times when the women worked in the fields and when they were released to prepare meals." (Berdahl, 35-36)

Headman of a settlement (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

The farm of a Schulte; see Westphalia.

See Kölmer.

Protected subjects; see Einlieger.

"It was clearly a highly differentiated society. Because the peasantry was divided into many different classifications of title, property rights, and work obligations, it was not a society in which the lords were aligned on one side and the peasants on the other. Rather, the power of the lord was mediated; it radiated throughout the estate, touching all, but with differing degrees of immediacy. The poor, landless Einlieger or Tagelöhner may occasionally have felt the lord's whip, but he probably felt more often that of the Gärtner or Bauer for whom he worked. The Gärtner was excluded from holding land in the open fields, but he did have his plot somewhere on the estate and the right to graze his cow on the common; his conditions were not as favorable as those of the full Bauer, but neither were they as poor as the Tagelöhner. The Bauer had to pay high rents or provide substantial labor for the lord, but he rarely performed that work himself; it was done by one of the laborers in his employ. Thus the peasantry both was exploited and, except for those at the very bottom of the scale, participated in the process of exploitation. In a society in which each was subservient to the lord, though with different personal obligations, and in which most were also subservient to other peasants, it was difficult, if not impossible, for class solidarity to develop. The lord's power was mediated by the fact that a great many of his subjects participated in the process of domination and exploitation. In fact, in this eighteenth-century German society, in which social differentiation was expressed in the language of the Stände, or estates, peasants commonly viewed other peasants with different rights as members of a different Stand. This social differentiation was recognized in the Prussian General Law Code of 1794, which defined members of the Gemeinde, the village community, as those holding property rights to land; landless peasants were excluded." (Berdahl, 41)

Labor service with a team of draft animals (horses or oxen) performed for the lord by a peasant. Spannen are teams of two animals each. (Berdahl, 33) For other types of service, see Handdienst, Dreschgärtner, and Peasant Services.

A cottage in which in which a Brinksitzer, Einlieger, or Einwohner lived (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

Day laborers; see Einlieger and discussion under Inleute.

Permanent subjects of an estate; see Untertänigkeit and Einlieger.

A system of lifelong juridical and economic bondage. "Peasants identified as untertänig were personally bound to the estate, but the character of that bondage often differed according to their status as it was defined by economic obligations to the lord and their tenure rights to land...Bound peasants could not leave the estate without the permission of their lords...Bound peasants required the permission of their lords to marry...Bound peasants were liable to the police and judicial authority of the lords, as well as to their arbitrary punishment...The lords, on the other hand, were obligated to see that their bound peasants were adequately fed, that their children received a 'Christian education,' that orphaned children were cared for, and that they were protected against the effects of natural misfortunes, as when the harvest failed." (Berdahl, 30-31)

See Peasant Services.

Full-fledged peasant (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

A full heir (Lowie, 149); see Westphalia.

See Gutshof.

"In Westphalia, the differences in rank were hardly less numerous than in the British peerage. Foremost was the Meier or Schulte, originally the headman of the settlement and economically characterized by the use of from six to ten horses in tillage. Theoretically, there could be only one Schultenhof or Oberhof, but, as the headman's office decayed, the terms were applied to any estate of requisite size. Locally, the proprietor of a somewhat smaller farm was called the Höner. Next came the owner of from four to six horses--the Vollhauer (full-fledged peasant), Vollerbe (full heir), or Kolone (Latin: colonus). Below him ranked the cotter (Kötter or Halbbauer, half-peasant) with only one to three horses at his disposal and commonly obliged to go into service or to take up a trade. But there were Westphalians who kept no horses at all, working their plots with oxen or cows, and who lived in a cottage called Stelle; if this stood on communal ground, the inmate was called Brinksitzer; if it was located on a full peasant's Hof, he was an Einwohner, Einlieger, or Heuerling. These designations varied in time and space, but half-a-dozen grades were obviously not uncommon." (Lowie, 149)

Zeitpächter formed a category of peasants with rights similar to the Lassbauern but with less than a life-time tenure. They "held a lease to their lands for a fixed period of time. Because the lord could exercise greater control over Zeitpächter, there was constant pressure by the lord to transform hereditary or lifetime tenure rights into fixed-term leaseholds. This pressure became especially pronounced in the last half of the eighteenth century." (Berdahl, 32-33)

Zweite Magd
Secondary maid (Lowie, 149); see Moravia.

--Berdahl: Robert M. Berdahl, The Politics of the Prussian Nobility: The Development of a Conservative Ideology, 1770-1848. Princeton, N.J.:  Princeton University Press, 1988.
--Bowman: Shearer Davis Bowman, Masters & Lords: Mid-19th-Century U.S. Planters and Prussian Junkers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
--Bratring: F.W.A. Bratring, Statistiche-Topographische Beschreibund der Gesamten Mark Brandenburg (reprint of 1804 edition), Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin, Band 22, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1968.
--Knodel: John E. Knodel, Demographic Behavior in the Past: A Study of Fourteen German Village Populations in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
--Kriedte: Peter Kriedte, Hans Medick, and Jürgen Schlumbohm, Industrialization Before Industrialization: Rural Industry in the Genesis of Capitalism, tr. by Beate Schempp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
--Lowie: Lowie, Robert H. Toward Understanding Germany. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.
--Rebel: Hermann Rebel, Peasant Classes: The Bureaucratization of Property and Family Relations Under Early Hapsburg Absolutism, 1511-1636, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Also see: Eugen Haberkern and Joseph Friedrich Wallach, Hilfswörterbuch für Historiker. Berlin-Grunewald: Verlag für Staatswissenschaften und Geschichte G.m.b.H., 1935.

In the birth records for Gusow (LDS Film 1334706), occupations of fathers include: Soldat, Koßath, Tagelohner, Dienstnecht, Hausman, Pattchter, and Kleinbauer. Where Stände are indicated at Gusow in 1818, they include: Hausmann, Kleinbauer, Soldat, Schiessbursegr [?], Kossuth, Leinweber, Kolonist, Tageloner and Tagelohner, Gattlermeister, and Einlieger.

No comments:

Post a Comment